• Domain Services
  • Trademark Services
  • Support

Localizing Your Website: ccTLDs vs. Subdomains vs. Subdirectories


Table of Content

Country Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs) For Localization
Subdomains for Localization

Subdirectories for Localization
Factors to Consider When Choosing a Localization Strategy for your Website

To successfully grow your business globally, optimizing your website for your target audience is crucial. This includes more than simply translating it into another language; you must also carefully consider your website's domain, structure, and URL. Not only should you avoid confusing visitors by translating your site into a language they can't read, but also you must ensure that your website is easily accessible to your target audience.

When localizing your website, you have several options, including country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs), subdomains, and subdirectories. However, each option has its own advantages and disadvantages, which could impact your website's ease of use and functionality.

This article will help you make the best choice for your website and SEO plan by examining the differences between ccTLDs, subdomains, and subdirectories. Consider factors such as budget, technical requirements, brand consistency, and SEO goals when deciding on your localization strategy.

Country Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs) For Localization

Country Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs) play a significant role in website localization. They are the final segment of a web address, such as '.us' for the United States or '.fr' for France.

Using a ccTLD can enhance your website's appeal to users in a specific country. Search engines, like Google, see these ccTLDs and recognize that your website may be highly relevant for users in that country.

For instance, if you operate a website selling Japanese anime merchandise and you're targeting the Japanese market, you might opt for a '.jp' ccTLD. Your web address could be 'www.animeenthusiast.jp'. This signals to both search engines and users that your site caters specifically to Japanese anime fans.


Improve Search Engine Rankings in Target Markets

One of the main benefits of having a ccTLD is that it can significantly increase search engine ranking in fcountry or region. Search engines may give websites with localized domain names a boost in the search results when people in a particular nation look for keywords related to your website. The reason for this is that search engine views ccTLDs as a reliable sign of a website's relevancy to that country or region.

Enhance Trust and Credibility among Local Customers

Adding a country code in the domain can make it clear to many users that your site is intended for them, which assists in building brand confidence in target locations and boosts the click-through rate. Using ccTLDs can therefore help increase confidence and credibility with local clients.

Additionally, having a ccTLD can indicate to customers that your company is well-known and reliable in the area. For instance, having a .de ccTLD can let German clients know that your company is reputable and has a relationship with their country if you run a business in Germany. Consumers are inclined to conduct trade with local businesses; therefore, acquiring a ccTLD can assist establish credibility and confidence.



Additional Costs for Domain Registration, SSL Certificates, and Hosting

When targeting different countries, you may need to purchase multiple ccTLDs, which could involve acquiring a separate domain for each country. This may also require SSL certificates and hosting services from specialized vendors, who often charge a premium compared to non-ccTLD specific services.

Maintaining an array of ccTLDs across various countries or regions could escalate the cumulative costs associated with maintaining and operating your website, making it a potential drawback to consider.

Subdomains for Localization

Subdomains are a way to organize your website's content for different languages or regions within your main domain. For example, if your website sells shoes worldwide, you can use subdomains like "en.yourshoesite.com" for English, "fr.yourshoesite.com" for French, and "es.yourshoesite.com" for Spanish.

Each subdomain hosts content specific to its respective language, making it user-friendly and efficient to manage.


Easy To Set Up

The ease of setting up subdomains makes them a good choice for localization. It is usually possible to create a new DNS record, direct it to a different server or folder, and then create a subdomain quickly and easily. It   implies that you can create distinct subdomains for various languages or areas with little technical expertise or funding.

Separate Website Management

Subdomains make it possible to operate websites independently. With its own content, layout, and efficiency, each subdomain can be thought of as a standalone website. Since changes done to one subdomain don't impact the others, it might make managing and updating your website easier.

No Additional Domain Registration Costs

You can use a subdomain by simply adding a new DNS record pointing to a subdirectory on your primary domain. You won't have to buy fresh domain names for every single language or area you are interested in targeting. 

You can save money on domain registration fees by using subdomains rather than ccTLDs, which can mount up if you have many domains for various countries or regions. This can be extremely helpful for entrepreneurs or smaller companies with a limited budget.


Less Effective for SEO Compared to CcTLDs

When it comes to getting found on Google, using subdomains instead of ccTLDs might not work as well. This is partly because the "good reputation" of your main website (what's often referred to in the tech world as 'link equity') doesn't automatically spread to your subdomains. So, your subdomains might not show up as high in search results.

Also, using subdomains can be a bit confusing for your visitors. They might not realize that the subdomain is part of your main site. This could lead to fewer people clicking around and buying things, which means less traffic and lower sales.

Possible Impact on Your Brand's Image

Using subdomains might make your brand a little less clear to people. It's like you're creating lots of mini websites, each with its own unique web address, all linked back to your main site.

This could be confusing for some of your site's visitors. They might not realize that these mini sites are all part of your main brand. So, in the end, this could make your brand less distinctive and memorable for your visitors. 

Subdirectories for Localization

Subdirectories for localization are a way to organize and manage your website's content for different languages or regions within your main domain. Essentially, they create sections or "folders" within your site that cater to different languages or countries.

For example, let's say your website sells shoes worldwide, and you want to provide your content in English,

French, and Spanish. Instead of creating three separate websites, you can make use of subdirectories on your main site. This means your website's structure might look something like this: www.yourshoesite.com/en for English speakers, www.yourshoesite.com/fr for French speakers, and www.yourshoesite.com/es for Spanish speakers.

Each of these "/en", "/fr", and "/es" paths is a subdirectory, hosting content specific to its respective language. This way, when a customer from France visits your site, they can navigate to the "/fr" subdirectory to view your content in French.

Using subdirectories for localization can make your website more user-friendly for an international audience. Moreover, it allows you to manage all language versions of your site from a single platform, which is a lot more efficient.



Easy to Set Up and Use

Using subdirectories makes setting up a multi-language website straightforward. Each language gets its own section under your main domain. For example, a Spanish visitor could go to 'yourwebsite.com/es' to read your content in Spanish. This user-friendly setup can help keep your audience engaged on your site.

No Additional Costs for Domain Registration or Hosting

Each localized version of the website is introduced as a subdirectory to the primary domain, like "example.com/es" for the Spanish version or "example.com/fr" for the French edition. As a result, there are no extra expenses related to setting up new domains or hosting different websites for each localized version. This can be a substantial way to cut costs, particularly for businesses with tight budgets.

Consolidated Website Management

Subdirectories enable consolidated website management. Each localized rendition of the website must be maintained independently when there are several domains or subdomains, which may be tedious and ineffective. Subdirectories, on the other hand, provide management of all website versions from one location, thereby simplifying content updates, implementing changes, and tracking performance.


Less Effective for SEO Compared to ccTLDs

Using subdirectories to inform search engines that your website is intended for a specific country might not be helpful. This could make it harder to rank for country-specific searches because search engines don't view subdirectories as important as they view country code top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Potential Confusion for Users Navigating the Website

Visitors viewing a website may become confused by subdirectories if they don't fully understand how the many subdirectories relate to the main domain. They may have a difficult time locating the information or items they need because of this disconnected user interaction.

It may be unclear whether two subdirectories are associated with the same website or company, for instance, if one employs a different color scheme or trademark than the other.


Factors to Consider When Choosing a Localization Strategy for your Website

When choosing a localization strategy for your website, there are several factors to consider:

  1. Target Audience: Identify your target audience and their language preferences. Determine the countries or regions you want to reach with your localized website.

  2. Budget: Evaluate your budget for website localization. Different strategies have varying costs, such as purchasing country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs) or managing subdomains/subdirectories. 

  3. Content Management: Consider your content management capabilities. Determine if your current CMS supports multiple languages and can handle the complexities of localization.

  4. SEO Goals: Assess your SEO goals for each target market. Determine whether using ccTLDs, subdomains, or subdirectories aligns with your SEO strategy and improves search engine rankings.

  5. Brand Consistency: Maintain brand consistency across different languages and regions. Ensure that your localized content reflects your brand identity and resonates with your target audience. 

  6. Technical Requirements: Evaluate technical requirements such as website hosting, server infrastructure, and multilingual functionality. Choose a strategy that aligns with your technical capabilities and provides a seamless user experience.

  7. Localization Expertise: Consider the level of expertise required for each strategy. Determine if you have in-house resources or need to outsource localization services.

  8. Scalability: Consider the scalability of your chosen strategy. Determine if it can accommodate future expansion into additional languages or regions.

By carefully considering these factors, you can choose a website localization strategy that effectively targets your audience, fits your budget, aligns with your brand, and helps you achieve your global business goals.


When expanding your business globally, optimizing your website for the target audience is crucial. Three main strategies for localization include using country code top-level domains (ccTLDs), subdomains, or subdirectories.

Using ccTLDs can improve search engine rankings and enhance trust among local customers, but it comes with additional costs. Subdomains are easy to set up and manage independently, but they may be less effective for SEO and confuse visitors. Subdirectories offer easy setup, consolidated management, and cost savings, but they may have limitations in SEO and user navigation.

Factors to consider when choosing a strategy include budget constraints, SEO goals, technical requirements, and maintaining brand consistency. By carefully evaluating these factors, you can select the most suitable localization approach for your business and effectively reach your global target markets.

For your domain registration and management needs, consider visiting Nominus.com, a reliable registrar specializing in international domain registration services.